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Languages in the Baltic states

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In the Baltic states, languages are divided in to 2 brands: Indo - European (Balto - Slavic languages) and Uralic languages (Finno - Ugric languages, Finnic)

UralicEdit

Uralic languages divisions (Baltic - speaking in bold, related in italic). The Uralic language community was founded in the late Stone Age in the Ural region.

Uralic

  • Samoyedic languages (spoken around the Ural mountains on both sides).
  • Finno - Ugric languages
  • Ugric languages
  • Hungarian
  • Ob - Ugric languages
  • Mansi
  • Khanty
  • Finno - Permic languages
  • Permic languages(spoken in the lowerhills of the Urals).
  • Komi
  • Udmurt
  • Finno - Volgaic languages
  • Finnic languages
  • Finnish
  • Estonian
  • Livonian
  • Karelian
  • Ingrian
  • Vepsian
  • South Estonian (Voro, Seto)
  • Votic
  • Ludic
  • Sami
  • 11 dialects, sometimes considered languages
  • Vepsian
  • 5 dialects.
  • Mordvinic languages
  • Erzya
  • Moksha
  • Mari languages
  • Hill Mari
  • Meadow Mari

EstonianEdit

Estonian is closest to Finnish. Estonian use the Estonian alphabet, consist of 23 "traditional" letters and 4 letters that only occur in loanwords. Estonian is the official language of the Republic of Estonia Native speakers: Roughly 1.05 million.

South EstonianEdit

South Estonian consist of the old genera, occurs in the 17th - early 20th centuries. Modern South Estonian consist of the main Vorõ and Seto dialects, and the minor Mulgi and Taltu dialects. It is build based on the old languages in the 1970s and the 1980s. Vorõ dialect is now taught in its area, Seto is common but not taught in school, while the other two dialects are nearly extinct.

LivonianEdit

Livonian flag

The modern ethnic and regional flag of Livonia.


Some individuals still wish to see Livonia united and consider themselves Livonian by ethnicity. The Livonians or Livs are what remains of the indigenous Finnic inhabitants of Livonia. They used to speak the Uralic Livonian language. the language was closely related to Estonian and Finnish and not so closely to Karelians, Saamis and Vepsians. The language actually did not interest young Livonians in the late 20th century and they chose to learn Russian and Latvian instead. In 2001 the final native speaker of Livonian died, and the Livonians was again interested in the language. By 2010, only one person was known to have learned Livonian as their mother tongue about 30 who had learnt it as their second. As of 2011, there were around 30 native speakers of the language.

Baltic languagesEdit

Balt languages are part of the Balto - Slavic family of the Indo - European languages. West Baltic languages are extinct, while East Baltic languages range from middle Poland to the Urals, from Estonia to Belarus. However, the primarily area consist of simply Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad.

Divisions:

Baltic languages:

  • West Baltic languages (extinct)
  • Galindian
  • Old Prussian
  • Sudovian
  • Skalvian
  • East Baltic languages
Map of dialects of Lithuanian language

The dialects of Lithuanian.

  • Latvian
  • Latgalian
  • Lithuanian
  • Samogitian
  • Curonian
  • Old Curonian (extinct)
  • New Curonian
  • Selonian (extinct)
  • Semigallian (extinct)
  • Golyad (extinct)

Latvian & LithuanianEdit

The two primary languages are national languages of their respective states. Speakers are also found in Poland, Belarus and Russia.

Other languagesEdit

Latgalian, Samogitian and New Curonian are all nearly extinct during the Soviet era, but the languages has grew over since.

Slavic languagesEdit

Slavic languages in the Baltic states are mostly Russian, Belarussian and Polish.

Divisions of the Slavic languages:

  • West Slavic
  • Polish
  • Czech
  • Slovak
  • Sorbian
  • Silesian
  • East Slavic
  • Russian
  • Belarussian
  • Ukrainian
  • South Slavic
  • Serbian and its dialects
  • Croatian
  • Bulgarian
  • Macedonian
  • Slovenian

PolishEdit

Poland and Lithuania share a common history period as the Polish - Lithuanian Commonwealth during 1569 - 1795. As a result there are a lot of Poles in Lithuania. Polish seems to mix with Lithuanian in areas with emigrants majority, creating a dialect-a-like of Polish. Poles mixed with local Russians and Germans as well.

RussianEdit

Russian came into the Baltics mostly through the Russian Empire and early Soviet eras, when local Uralic and Baltic languages was disallowed. School taught Russian, local was told to only speaks Russian, and so on. Russians was well-noted in Estonia and Latvia, while Lithuania was known for is success in keeping Russians away. Governments in Estonia and Latvia adopted that only people that lived or had ancestors that lived in the Baltics before 1940 are able to get citizen prove of that country, thus making a lot of Russians left those nations.

BelarussianEdit

Distribution of related Uralic languagesEdit

755px-Fenno-Ugrian people

Distribution of Uralic languages.

Karelian RepublicEdit

The Republic of Karelia recognizes Russian as 'official language'. Veps, Karelian and Finnish account for large number of speakers too.

Kaliningrad OblastEdit

Kaliningrad was home to the extincted language Prussian, as well as, partly, Lithuanian.

Leningrad OblastEdit

Finnish and Ingrian was recognized in the oblast.

FinlandEdit

Finnish in Finland.

Further languages: Saami, Hungarian, MordvinicEdit

Saami are present in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Hungarian are in Hungary and its neighbors (Slovakia, Czech, Slovennia, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, etc.). Mordvinic are spoken in a wide area far north of the Caucasus.

Also seeEdit

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