Livonia in 1534

Livonia in 1534 AD.

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Sweedish Ingria in the 17th century AD.

Terra Mariana (the Land of Mary) was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (German: Alt-Livland, Estonian: Vana-Liivimaa, Latvian: Livonija) was a nation formed between 1207 and 1561 in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.

It was established on February 2, 1207 by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire, but lost this status in 1215 when proclaimed by Pope Innocent III as a direct subject to the Holy See and was devided by the Papal Legate William of Modena: the Archbishopric of Riga, Bishopric of Courland, Bishopric of Dorpat, Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, the lands ruled by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, while the northern parts became a Dominum directum to the King of Denmark, Duchy of Estonia.

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Lv from satellite

A satalie image of the land that was once Livonia.