It was created by what is now the state of Sweden between 1561–1718. After the Polish-Swedish War was ended by the Truce of Altmark in 1629 Sweden gained the western part of the Duchy of Livonia roughly as far as the Aiviekste River, which then forming Vidzeme's eastern border. During the Great Northern War, Swedish Livonia was conquered by the Russian Empire and ceded to Russia at the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. The Russians then created the Riga Governorate.
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